pp. 364-365 "Fredrick Taylor"
facsimile /transcription of a book excerpt
"Scientific management involves a complete mental revolution on the part of the workingman.... And it involves the equally complete mental revolution on the part of those on the management's side. . . . in the past a great part of the thought and interest . . . has been centered on what may be called the proper division of the surplus resulting from their joint efforts.... The great revolution that takes place . . . under scientific management is that both sides take their eyes off the division of the surplus as the all- important matter, and together turn their attention toward increasing the size of the surplus until this surplus becomes so large that it is unnecessary to quarrel over how it shall be divided."
"First. Find, say 10 to 15 different men (preferably in as many separate establishments and different parts of the country) who are especially skillful in doing the particular work to be analyzed.
Second. Study the exact series of elementary operations or motions which each of these men uses in doing the work which is being investigated, as well as the implements each man uses.
Third. Study with a stop watch the time required to make each of these elementary movements and then select the quickest way of doing each element of work.
Fourth. Eliminate all false movements, slow movements, and useless movements.
Fifth. After doing away with all unnecessary movements, collect into one series the quickest and best movements, as well as the best implements.
This new method, involving that series of motions which can be made quickest and best, is then substituted in place of the 10 or 15 inferior series which were formerly in use. ..."